SIAM Report on Mathematics in Industry, 2012

Excerpt from the Executive Summary:

In this study we also took a closer look at the technical skills that graduates need, which tend to fall into three overlapping domains: mathematics, computation, and specific application domains.
Useful mathematical skills include a broad training in the core of mathematics, statistics, mathematical modeling, and numerical simulation, as well as depth in an appropriate specialty. Computational skills include, at a minimum, experience in programming in one or more languages. Specific requirements, such as C++, a fourth-generation language such as MATLAB, or a scripting language such as Python, vary a great deal from company to company and industry to industry. Familiarity with high-performance computing (e.g. parallel computing, large-scale data mining, and visualization) is becoming more and more of an asset, and in some jobs is a requirement. The choice of an application domain to focus on depends strongly on a graduate’s career goals and the requirements of his or her potential employer. In general, a student’s level of knowledge has to be sufficient to understand the language of that domain and bridge the gap between theory and practical implementation.